Classical methods for explicit dynamics such as reduced integrated finite elements with stabilization, efficient inelastic materials, penalty contact and conventional mass scaling were established in the 1970s and 80s. They enabled coarse scale models of car crash and realistic deep drawing simulations of simple shapes. Further development in the 90s was focused on parallelization and adaptation of the algorithms to cluster architecture and gaining more experience from real case studies, which made explicit codes to the standard for industrial car crash simulations with about one million degrees of freedom.
Further increase of model sizes to ten million degrees of freedom and the usage of casted parts in car bodies led to new challenges and requires the development of new algorithms with improved efficiency. First, novel mass scaling algorithms aim to enable higher stable time step sizes for crash applications. Second, the casted parts with complicated geometry require tetrahedral free meshes and consequently accurate and efficient tetrahedral finite elements. The two following projects in this research field pursue these goals.